A tiny grain that is gluten-free and packs a powerful nutritional punch.
Article by: Barbara Bowman
Quinoa, pronounced [keen-WAH] is a seed crop eaten as a grain. The plant, Chenopodium quinoa, grows in the high elevations of South America. The little seeds were a principal food crop of the Incas and the Aztecs and in the last many years have become more known in the U.S.
Although the plant is best known for it's edible seeds the greens, related to spinach are as well edible.
The quinoa fields were harvested by hand for centuries but now machines are used for gathering much of the annual crop. Once harvested the heads are thrashed to remove the seed. The seed then is winnowed to remove the husks. The resulting seed is coated with a bitter layer of saponins which in nature wards off pests and birds. The seeds must be processed with an alkaline solution that removes the layer and renders the seed edible. The seed can then be packaged or ground into flour.
Protein Quality And Nutrient Density
Quinoa has the highest amount of protein of any grain crop, about 6 grams in a half cup serving. Due to the concentration of amino acids the quality of protein is compared to milk. That half cup serving also nets you 3 grams of dietary fiber and 23mg of potassium. One of the many benefits of this grain is that it is a gluten-free option for our growing population of people with wheat intolerance.
Quinoa Varieties And Relatives
The most common quinoa found in stores is white but black and red varieites are starting to get better distribution. Other colors include orange and yellow but tend to be hard to find outside of South America.
Huazontles - A Close Cousin
There is a variety of quinoa found in Mexico, (Chenopodium berlandieri spp. nuttalliae). Pronounced [wah-ZONT-lay]. Rather than harvesting the seed, the green heads are battered up and fried. Read more >>
The harvested grains are processed and some of the resulting grains are packaged whole and some ground into flour.
Use whole grain quinoa as a side-dish grain or add the cooked grain to salads. The whole grain can also be used in soups and stews and even baked goods such as muffins or even tortillas.
Naturally gluten-free quinoa flour can be combined with all-purpose flour to increase the nutritional value of the flour. It can also be used ,partially or completely, to replace all-purpose flour in recipes for cookies and cakes.
Some quinoa you buy in grocery stores in the U.S. has been sufficiently processed that rinsing may not be required but read the package instructions just to make sure.
Cooks In 10 -15 Minutes
The liquid to grain ratio is 2/1 so if you want to cook a cup of quinoa then you need 2 cups of liquid. This will yield about 3 cups of cooked grain. Like many grains you can use different methods for cooking. You can simply add water and the grain, bring to a boil, turn down and simmer till done (the rice method) or a Pilaf method where you toast the grains in a pan (sometimes with onion) then add liquid, bring to a boil and simmer till done. The cooking time
should be about 10 to 15 minutes. You know the grain is ready when the little "germ ring" appears around the grain. For more information about grain cooking times-
View our Cooking Grains Chart >>
cooked quinoa with germ ring showing
Quinoa, without seasoning is pretty bland so recipes tend to include ingredients like onion, chicken or vegetable broth rather than water, and even dried fruit like cranberries or cherries. Browse our recipes for more suggestions.